Analyse und Bewertung der Wirtschaftlichkeit kommunaler - download pdf or read online

By Martin Kirchner

Masterarbeit aus dem Jahr 2013 im Fachbereich VWL - Verkehrsökonomie, notice: 3,0, Fachhochschule Kiel, Sprache: Deutsch, summary: Gegenstand der Unternehmensziele öffentlicher Nahverkehrsgesellschaften ist die Erbringung von Dienstleistungen in shape von Beförderung von Personen. Diese entsprechen dem gesetzlich vorgesehenen Zweck kommunaler Unternehmen. Das Regionalisierungsgesetz (RegG) definiert den Öffentlichen Personennahverkehr als öffentliche Aufgabe der Daseinsfürsorge.
Der öffentliche Nahverkehr und dessen Infrastrukturnetz prägten entscheidend das Stadtwachstum in den europäischen Staaten. Vor allem der Schienenver-kehr ermöglichte ein starkes Anwachsen der Städte während der industriellen Urbanisierung. Gegenüber den Motorisierten Individualverkehr (MIV) weist der ÖPNV Vorteile im Bereich der Transportkapazität und der relativen Umweltfreundlichkeit auf.
Als öffentliche Unternehmen gilt für kommunale Verkehrsbetriebe nicht das klassische Prinzip der Gewinnmaximierung wie für privatwirtschaftliche Akteure. An Stelle dessen orientieren sich die Unternehmen in der Regel an dem Prinzip der Zuschussminimierung. Hier gilt es, den öffentlichen Zuschuss zur Deckung des wirtschaftlichen Defizits zu senken. 2010 lag der durchschnittliche Kostendeckungsgrad kommunaler Nahverkehrsbetriebe in Deutschland bei 77%, wobei dieser im Zeitraum seit 1990 gestiegen ist

Die Erbringung der Transportleistung erfolgt in Kommunen in einer vergleichbaren artwork. Sichtbare Unterschiede liegen vor allem in der Wahl der Verkehrsmittel. Neben Bussen werden auch Schienenfahrzeuge eingesetzt, als Straßen-, Schnell- oder U-Bahnen. Letztere spielen aufgrund ihrer höheren Kosten nur für größere Städte eine Rolle.
In der vorliegenden Arbeit sollen zunächst Städte ohne Straßenbahn hinsichtlich des Fahrgastaufkommens, der Umsatzerlöse und der Personalaufwände miteinander verglichen werden.
Dieser Vergleich erfolgt anschließend mit einer Gruppe von Städten, welche neben Bussen zusätzlich Schienenfahrzeuge einsetzen.
Durch die Bildung von Durchschnittswerten soll abschließend ein Vergleich zwischen den beiden Städtegruppen erfolgen. Daraus sollen sich Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten ableiten. Des Weiteren wird geklärt, ob die Nutzung von Straßenbahnen das Fahrgastaufkommen erhöht und der Umsatzerlös gesteigert wird. Die Leitfrage ist hierbei die nach der Wirtschaftlichkeit der jeweiligen Betriebsformen. Im Weiteren sollen die IST-Werte untereinander, bzw. mit den daraus gebildeten SOLL-Kennzahlen verglichen werden. So können Aussagen über die Wirtschaftlichkeit der kommunalen Nahverkehrsbetriebe getroffen werden.

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Read e-book online Jeep Wrangler from 1987 PDF

By Robert Ackerson

This publication gains all Jeep Wrangler versions equipped from 1987 via 2006. It comprises entire information of annual alterations, model-by-model, .their costs and people of trim degrees, and innovations. it really is illustrated with thousands of colour photos of almost each Wrangler version, their interiors, distinguishing beneficial properties and techniques. a close index assures the reader of easy accessibility to info of curiosity. including to the intensity of the publication' distinctive textual content are excerpts from interviews with key Jeep officers and designers,as good as contributions from many Wrangler vendors and fans.

eBook ISBN: 978-1-845847-05-0 (9781845847050)
Print ISBN: 9781904788973 (9781904788973)

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A Study Manual of Professional Competence in Road Haulage: A by David Lowe PDF

By David Lowe

This most up-to-date version of a well-established and hugely revered guide presents a entire process examine for somebody taking the Oxford Cambridge and RSA (OCR) certificates Competence (CPC) exam. With all of the info offered in a hugely obtainable layout, this publication is successfully a whole examine path, perfect to be used as a self-teaching aid.

Updated to account for ecu and united kingdom legislative alterations, this revised twelfth version contains usual case examine eventualities utilized in the exam, and pattern questions and solutions. it's also crucial analyzing for a person hired in, or wishing to go into, the line freight delivery and distribution industries in addition to shipping supervisors and bosses who are looking to brush up on their knowledge.

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Download e-book for iPad: Porsche Carrera: The Air-Cooled Era, 1953-1998 by Johnny Tipler

By Johnny Tipler

Porsche Carrera follows the advance and layout of the Carrrera motor vehicle dynasty, from the origins of the Carrera line within the 550 and 356 versions in the course of the hugely tuned race autos of the Nineteen Sixties to the mostly home made, air-cooled vehicles of the Nineteen Seventies and the Eighties. The ebook gains unique profiles of all Carrera types, together with roadgoing and race types, prototypes, distinctive builds and infrequent automobiles; in-depth explorations of the engineering and tuning of the autos and buyer's publications for different versions. additionally integrated are a chain of interviews with racing drivers akin to Sir Stirling Moss, Derek Bell, John Surtees and Gijs van Lennep, and key Carrera figures comparable to dressmaker Richard Soderberg and Klaus Bischof, head of the Porsche Rolling Museum. Foreword through Jurgen Barth, and over four hundred color images, many specifically commissioned.

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Download e-book for kindle: From the Test Drive To The Office How to Buy A Pre-Owned by John Taylor Jr

By John Taylor Jr

With such a lot of humans being ripped off in trendy pre-owned vehicle and listening to many of the tales first hand, i made a decision to jot down a e-book to aid humans comprehend the character of the and provides them a greater knowing of ways to shop for a pre-owned automobile. in the event that your a primary time vehicle consumer or have undesirable motor vehicle credits this e-book is for you.

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Get The MGA: Revised Paperback Edition PDF

By John Price Williams

This new booklet is the definitive research, for the writer has long past again to manufacturing unit documents and to the folks who labored at the motor vehicle within the 'fifties, to determine the way it used to be conceived, synthetic and advertised. this is the genuine tale of the MGA's engineering, physique styling and each point of the car's improvement and construction - together with MG's technique to beat its competitors.In seven years of construction, there have been significant successes and unhappy disappointments. The MGA was once the automobile that was once "right first time" and even though the dual Cam variation was once a nightmare for the manufacturing unit, it truly is now the main wanted model.This e-book tells how the sleepy Thames-side village of Abingdon grew to become a mass-production centre for the MGA, how the MGA grew to become one among America's best-loved activities automobiles and the way the MGA has turn into certainly one of trendy vintage automobiles, loved through enthusiastic proprietors all around the world.

eBook ISBN: 978-1-845847-11-1 (9781845847111)
Print ISBN: 9781903706565 (9781903706565)

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Get Building a Dune Buggy - The Essential Manual: Everything you PDF

By Paul Shakespeare

there was a major resurgence of curiosity in Dune Buggies (Beach Buggies), package autos in response to the chassis and working equipment of fatally corroded VW Beetles. this is the full step-by-step useful advisor to the apparatus and development recommendations had to construct a Buggy, in addition to sound information at the number of donor vehicle and new elements. With this guide on your workshop, you could construct any VW-based Dune Buggy keeping off the entire universal pitfalls and funds sapping blunders, and finishing up with an exceptional, roadworthy multi-purpose car.

eBook ISBN: 978-1-78711-004-5 (9781787110045)
Print ISBN: 9781904788737 (9781904788737)

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Automotive Electricity: Electric Drive by Joseph Beretta PDF

By Joseph Beretta

because the starting of the century, electric items have invaded our daily lives. Now, electrical strength is coming to be noticeable as an answer to the pollutants because of vehicles. whereas this transition has remained very gradual over the last ten years, it's been accelerating because the statutory constraints and wishes of the marketplace have replaced. whether the electrical motor vehicle itself fails to dominate the marketplace, electrical traction is taking a major position in our force to maneuver clear of gas-powered automobiles. one other answer, hybrid cars, mix resources of strength (electric and chemical), lowering the worldwide intake of fossil fuels. gasoline telephone cars also are essentially the most promising applied sciences for the long run, with the ability to exploit any gas - hydrogen being the fitting gasoline ecologically, yet limited through infrastructure and garage matters. This e-book explores a majority of these diversified options for relocating our autos from fossil gasoline intake to new, extra environmentally-friendly energy sources.

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Download e-book for iPad: Forensic Visibility by James L. Harris Sr.,James L. Harris II

By James L. Harris Sr.,James L. Harris II

Forensic Visibility is a vital textual content that, in basic terms, explains many refined and intricate points of forensic visibility. It starts with a vast advent to the human visible approach, together with visible detection, visible seek, distinction threshold, historical past luminance, complicated backgrounds, and eyewitness testimony. it is a becoming creation for any expert searching for perception into this advanced topic.

Author Jim Harris, Sr. (along with co-author Jim Harris II) attracts upon over 50 years within the box of visibility stories, together with a chronic tenure on the Visibility Lab on the college of California. He has served as knowledgeable in over 1,000 situations regarding the research of visibility concerns in all kinds of injuries, each one of which concerned questions to whether the events concerned could were in a position to visually gather details that might have allowed them to prevent the accident.

This booklet covers chapters pertinent to twist of fate reconstructionists, together with visibility relating to pedestrians and car injuries. What roles did intersection lighting fixtures and pavement luminance play? How trustworthy are distance estimates given by means of eyewitnesses? How does incapacity glare impact the method of the attention? those questions and extra are mentioned in detail.

Also incorporated during this booklet is a whole bankruptcy dedicated to plane mid-air collisions. Harris has been retained as a litigation specialist for over a hundred and twenty midair collisions. additional chapters discover forensic images and the way to achieve scene and photographic constancy, in addition to problems with solution, digital camera kind, visual display unit and printer calibration, linearity, gentle meters, and distance estimates from photographs.

Forensic Visibility is a crucial addition in your library when you are an twist of fate reconstructionist, assurance expert, legal professional, or any expert keen on instances with visibilty issues.

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